Despite the rapid advances in treatment technologies for per-fluoroalkyl and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) removal, the efficiency and practicality of these technologies would be either questionable or not cost-competitive sometimes. Several studies have successfully removed or destroyed PFAS from aqueous solutions but only to a limited level. Nevertheless, the treatment technologies are still evolving, and thus, long-term strategies should be implemented with caution. In this study, the physical and chemical properties of PFAS were provided. The emerging treatment technologies for PFAS removal, such as ion exchange resins, adsorption, advanced oxidation process, and membranebased separation, are briefly reviewed in this paper. The treatment's mechanisms and future research trends are covered to provide insight into the technologies above. The study covered the treatment technologies for PFAS removal systematically and hierarchically and delivered a guideline for creating efficient and robust treatment technology for PFAS treatment. (c) 2022 Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.