Thermodynamic uncertainty relations (TURs) are recently established relations between the relative uncertainty of time-integrated currents and entropy production in nonequilibrium systems. For small perturbations away from equilibrium, linear response (LR) theory provides the natural framework to study generic nonequilibrium processes. Here, we use LR to derive TURs in a straightforward and unified way. Our approach allows us to generalize TURs to systems without local time-reversal symmetry, including, e.g., ballistic transport and periodically driven classical and quantum systems. We find that, for broken time reversal, the bounds on the relative uncertainty are controlled both by dissipation and by a parameter encoding the asymmetry of the Onsager matrix. We illustrate our results with an example from mesoscopic physics. We also extend our approach beyond linear response: for Markovian dynamics, it reveals a connection between the TUR and current fluctuation theorems.