Highway tunnel lighting environments include sidewall, pavement, ceiling, etc., their surface luminance were affected by the distribution of luminous flux of the lamps. While driving through a highway tunnel, the driver needs to complete a series of visual tasks. The spatial distribution of the luminance and color on the road surface and sidewall, as well as the correlated color temperature, influence the driver’s visual performance. The process of driving through a highway tunnel lighting environment was simulated in a laboratory where the luminance of the non-uniform visual environment was gradually decreased. The effects of the spatial distribution of the lighting environment parameters on a driver’s visual performance was studied by testing each subject’s reaction times and missed target rates. The tests showed that the spatial distribution of the lighting environment parameters significantly influences a driver’s visual performance, and the effects on test subjects’ peripheral visual performance are different in threshold, transition, and interior zones. The optimization of the spatial distribution of the lighting environment parameters can enhance traffic safety and energy saving of highway tunnel lighting.