During the last two years, mesomorphic structures for polyelectrolytes with ionically bound surfactants have been reported. This has new been extended to the case of hydrogen bonding. For poly (4-vinyl pyridine)-pentadecyl phenol (P4VP-(PDP)x), the long period Lp of the lamellar structure is found to decrease as a function of x, in complete contrast to polyelectrolyte systems. Scaling arguments predict that the x-dependence of the long period is entirely due to the reduction in the thickness of the polymer layer and satisfies Lp ∝ x-1, as observed experimentally. Polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes, on the other hand, are always locally fully complexed due to cooperative complexation with a corresponding x-independent long period.