Rapid growth of the older population worldwide, coupled with their overreliance on automobile and its negative consequences for the environment and for their wellbeing, has encouraged research on travel behavior of this age group. This study contributes to the literature by providing an integrated analysis of the effects of sociodemographic, built environmental, psycho-social, trip, and activity space attributes on shopping trip mode choice of older adults in Helsinki Metropolitan Area. Data was collected using an online map-based survey. Two person-based activity space models were developed, in addition to the commonly used 500-m buffer, to measure activity space and built environmental attributes. Integrated Choice and Latent Variable (ICLV) models were utilized to explore modal choice. Although the use of activity space models did not significantly increase the fit of ICLV models, it provided different information. Walkability index showed a positive significant effect on walking trips in individualized residential exposure model. A positive effect on transit use or biking was found in individual home range and 500-m buffer. The shape and dispersion of activity spaces affected mode choice as well. Green space influenced the goal of being physically active which in turn affected mode choice. Three personal goals of being physically active, having cultural and social affairs, and caring for others influenced mode choice. Results indicate the priority of the use of activity space and hybrid choice models in understanding travel behavior. Findings of this study can guide policies aiming to increase the use of more sustainable modes among this age group.
Ramezani, S., Laatikainen, T., Hasanzadeh, K., & Kyttä-Pirjola, M. (2019). Shopping trip mode choice of older adults: an application of activity space and hybrid choice models in understanding the effects of built environment and personal goals. Transportation . https://doi.org/10.1007/s11116-019-10065-z