Poly(allylguanidine) (PAG) was synthesized and characterized as a polycationic coating material for culturing neurons, glial cells, and neural stem/precursor cells (NSPCs) to apply PAG for neural tissue engineering. For comparison, poly-d-lysine (PDL), the golden benchmark of the neuron cell culture system, was also used in this study. When PAG was subjected to a mixed culture of neurons and glial cells, cell adhesion and neurite extension of neuronal cells were clearly observed but only few glial cells could be found alongside the neurons. Compared to PDL, the significantly lower density of the glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells implied that PAG suppressed the glial cell development. Likewise, PAG was demonstrated to dominate the differentiation of NSPCs principally into neurons. To investigate whether the different effects of PAG and PDL on neuron and glial cell behaviors resulted from the difference of guanidinium cations and ammonium cations, poly-l-arginine (PLA) was included and compared in this study. Similar to PDL, PLA supported high neuron and glial cell viability simultaneously. Consequently, glial cell growth and viability restrained on PAG was not only affected by the side-chain guanidino groups but also by the backbone structure property. The absence of the peptide structure in the backbone of PAG and the conformation of coated PAG on tissue culture polystyrene possibly determined the polycationic biomaterial to limit the growth of glial cells.