This Review discusses novel catalytic pathways of lignocellulosic biomass to value-added chemicals including biomass-derived sugar alcohols, organic acids, furans and biohydrocarbons. These production approaches are undertaken by biological, chemical and thermochemical transformations or a combination of them. Nevertheless, the majority of research in this area is focused on the design of heterogeneous catalysts to convert value-added products from holocellulosic biomass. Biorefineries represent the peak of biomass processes in order to produce valuable chemicals and liquid fuels avoiding the utilization of corroding and toxic elements. The aim of the present Review is to offer the readers a broad overview of recent holocellulosic-based chemical and fuels production technologies via heterogeneous catalysis. There is also an overview of the economic aspects to efficiently produce these platform chemicals at industrial scale. To summarize this Review, an outlook and conclusions of the reported processes to date is provided.