Quantum Knots and Monopoles
Bose–Einstein condensation is a quantum statistical phase transition that occurs in a system consisting of bosons when a single-particle quantum state becomes macroscopically occupied. This peculiar state of matter was first predicted in 1925 and finally realized seventy years later in vapours of weakly-interacting alkali-metal atoms. Since then, Bose–Einstein condensates have been one of the most fascinating research fields in modern physics. The gaseous condensates offer a robust platform to accurately study interacting many-particle systems from the first principles. Experimentally, the possibility to precisely control a condensate with external fields and directly image its order parameter provides unforeseen opportunities to obtain deep insight into phenomena across different subfields of physics. In particular, gaseous condensates can emulate complicated models that arise in atomic, condensed-matter, and even particle physics, allowing realizations of exotic phenomena that are elusive in their original contexts. An outstanding example is the existence of various topological defects in ultacold quantum gases with internal degrees of freedom. In this thesis, we investigate the creation, stability, and dynamical properties of various topological defects in spinor Bose–Einstein condensates. The majority of the theoretical results is obtained by numerically solving the dynamics using Gross–Pitaevskii equations for spin-1 condensates. Many theoretical predictions are confirmed by the very good agreement with experiments. The first experimental observations of a topological point defect in an order parameter describing the quantum gas are presented. Such a point defect is reminiscent to the magnetic monopole particle appearing in grand unified theories. Therefore, the discovery of monopoles in quantum gases further encourages the quest for finding magnetic monopoles in natural electromagnetic fields, a search largely initiated by Paul Dirac almost a century ago. Subsequently, the fine structure and decay dynamics of the point defect are studied numerically and verified in experiments. The created monopole is gradually destroyed during the polar-to-ferromagnetic quantum phase transition, which results in the spontaneous emergence of a Dirac monopole in synthetic magnetic field. In addition to the singular point defect, the first experimental realization of a knot soliton in the context of quantum field is reported. This thesis lays the foundation for studies of the dynamics and stability of three-dimensional topological structures in quantum systems.
|Tila||Julkaistu - 2017|
|OKM-julkaisutyyppi||G5 Tohtorinväitöskirja (artikkeli)|