Superconducting microwave circuits are promising candidates for a variety of different applications, ranging from extremely sensitive photon detectors to large-scale quantum computer. Thus, they may revolutionize our everyday lives in the future through substantial technological development. Superconducting quantum circuits typically operate at low power levels and consist of linear and nonlinear resonators. In order to enhance their operation fidelity, they need to be cooled efficiently, and the dissipation of the circuit needs to be well engineered. In this chapter, we describe a refrigerator for electric quantum circuits based on photon-assisted electron tunneling in hybrid superconductor–insulator–normal-metal junctions. Furthermore, such junctions can also serve as incoherent microwave sources. Importantly, the photon absorption and emission rates can be tuned over several orders of magnitude. In addition, these junctions are used for refrigeration and heating of the normal-metal electrons as well as for probing the electron temperature. Here, we present their operation principle and provide insight to their potential applications as well as briefly describe fabrication methods.
|Otsikko||21st Century Nanoscience – A Handbook|
|Tila||Julkaistu - 22 huhtikuuta 2020|
|OKM-julkaisutyyppi||B2 Kirjan osa tai toinen tutkimuskirja|