Additive manufacturing (AM) is gaining interests in drug delivery applications, offering innovative opportunities for the design and development of systems with complex geometry and programmed controlled release profile. In addition, polymer-based drug delivery systems can improve drug safety, efficacy, patient compliance, and are the key materials in AM. Therefore, combining AM and polymers can be beneficial to overcome the existing limitations in the development of controlled release drug delivery systems. Considering these advantages, here we are focusing on the recent developments in the field of polymeric drug delivery systems prepared by AM. This review provides a comprehensive overview on a holistic polymer–AM perspective for drug delivery systems with discussion on the materials, properties, design and fabrication techniques and the mechanisms used to achieve a controlled release system. The current challenges and future perspectives for personalized medicine and clinical use of these systems are also briefly discussed.