Overview of first Wendelstein 7-X high-performance operation

Tutkimustuotos: Lehtiartikkelivertaisarvioitu

Tutkijat

  • T. Klinger
  • T. Andreeva
  • S. Bozhenkov
  • C. Brandt
  • R. Burhenn
  • B. Buttenschoen
  • G. Fuchert
  • B. Geiger
  • O. Grulke
  • H. P. Laqua
  • N. Pablant
  • K. Rahbarnia
  • T. Stange
  • A. von Stechow
  • N. Tamura
  • H. Thomsen
  • Y. Turkin
  • T. Wegner
  • Ivana Abramovic
  • J. Alcuson
  • P. Aleynikov
  • K. Aleynikova
  • A. Ali
  • A. Alonso
  • G. Anda
  • E. Ascasibar
  • J. P. Baehner
  • S. G. Baek
  • M. Balden
  • J. Baldzuhn
  • M. Banduch
  • T. Barbui
  • W. Behr
  • C. Beidler
  • A. Benndorf
  • C. Biedermann
  • W. Biel
  • B. Blackwell
  • E. Blanco
  • M. Blatzheim
  • S. Ballinger
  • T. Bluhm
  • D. Boeckenhoff
  • B. Boeswirth
  • L-G Boettger
  • M. Borchardt
  • Mark Borsuk
  • J. Boscary
  • H-S Bosch
  • M. Beurskens
  • R. Brakel
  • H. Brand
  • T. Braeuer
  • H. Braune
  • S. Brezinsek
  • K-J Brunner
  • R. Bussiahn
  • I. Bykov
  • J. Cai
  • Manuel G. Calvo
  • B. Cannas
  • A. Cappa
  • A. Carls
  • D. Carralero
  • L. Carraro
  • B. Carvalho
  • F. Castejon
  • A. Charl
  • N. Chaudhary
  • D. Chauvin
  • F. Chernyshev
  • M. Cianciosa
  • R. Citarella
  • G. Claps
  • J. Coenen
  • M. J. Cole
  • M. J. Cole
  • F. Cordella
  • G. Cseh
  • A. Czarnecka
  • K. Czerski
  • M. Czerwinski
  • G. Czymek
  • A. da Molin
  • A. da Silva
  • H. Damm
  • A. de la Pena
  • S. Degenkolbe
  • C. P. Dhard
  • M. Dibon
  • A. Dinklage
  • T. Dittmar
  • M. Drevlak
  • P. Drewelow
  • P. Drews
  • F. Durodie
  • E. Edlund
  • P. van Eeten
  • F. Effenberg
  • G. Ehrke
  • S. Elgeti
  • M. Endler
  • D. Ennis
  • H. Esteban
  • T. Estrada
  • J. Fellinger
  • Y. Feng
  • E. Flom
  • H. Fernandes
  • W. H. Fietz
  • W. Figacz
  • J. Fontdecaba
  • O. Ford
  • T. Fornal
  • H. Frerichs
  • A. Freund
  • T. Funaba
  • A. Galkowski
  • G. Gantenbein
  • Y. Gao
  • J. Garcia Regana
  • D. Gates
  • J. Geiger
  • R. Giannella
  • A. Gogoleva
  • B. Goncalves
  • A. Goriaev
  • D. Gradic
  • M. Grahl
  • J. Green
  • H. Greuner
  • A. Grosman
  • H. Grote
  • M. Gruca
  • C. Guerard
  • P. Hacker
  • X. Han
  • J. H. Harris
  • D. Hartmann
  • D. Hathiramani
  • B. Hein
  • B. Heinemann
  • P. Helander
  • S. Henneberg
  • M. Henkel
  • J. Hernandez Sanchez
  • C. Hidalgo
  • M. Hirsch
  • K. P. Hollfeld
  • U. Hoefel
  • A. Hoelting
  • D. Hoeschen
  • M. Houry
  • J. Howard
  • X. Huang
  • Z. Huang
  • M. Hubeny
  • M. Huber
  • H. Hunger
  • K. Ida
  • T. Ilkei
  • S. Illy
  • B. Israeli
  • S. Jablonski
  • M. Jakubowski
  • J. Jelonnek
  • H. Jenzsch
  • T. Jesche
  • M. Jia
  • P. Junghanns
  • J. Kacmarczyk
  • J-P Kallmeyer
  • U. Kamionka
  • H. Kasahara
  • W. Kasparek
  • Y. O. Kazakov
  • N. Kenmochi
  • C. Killer
  • A. Kirschner
  • R. Kleiber
  • J. Knauer
  • M. Knaup
  • A. Knieps
  • T. Kobarg
  • G. Kocsis
  • F. Koechl
  • Y. Kolesnichenko
  • A. Koenies
  • R. Koenig
  • P. Kornejew
  • J-P Koschinsky
  • F. Koester
  • M. Kraemer
  • R. Krampitz
  • A. Kraemer-Flecken
  • N. Krawczyk
  • T. Kremeyer
  • J. Krom
  • M. Krychowiak
  • I. Ksiazek
  • M. Kubkowska
  • G. Kuehner
  • P. A. Kurz
  • S. Kwak
  • M. Landreman
  • P. Lang
  • R. Lang
  • A. Langenberg
  • S. Langish
  • H. Laqua
  • R. Laube
  • S. Lazerson
  • C. Lechte
  • M. Lennartz
  • W. Leonhardt
  • C. Li
  • Y. Li
  • Y. Liang
  • C. Linsmeier
  • S. Liu
  • J-F Lobsien
  • D. Loesser
  • J. Loizu Cisquella
  • J. Lore
  • A. Lorenz
  • M. Losert
  • A. Lucke
  • A. Lumsdaine
  • VN Lutsenko
  • H. Maassberg
  • O. Marchuk
  • J. H. Matthew
  • S. Marsen
  • M. Marushchenko
  • S. Masuzaki
  • D. Maurer
  • M. Mayer
  • K. McCarthy
  • P. McNeely
  • A. Meier
  • D. Mellein
  • B. Mendelevitch
  • P. Mertens
  • D. Mikkelsen
  • A. Mishchenko
  • B. Missal
  • J. Mittelstaedt
  • T. Mizuuchi
  • A. Mollen
  • Victor Moncada
  • T. Moennich
  • T. Morisaki
  • D. Moseev
  • S. Murakami
  • G. Nafradi
  • M. Nagel
  • D. Naujoks
  • H. Neilson
  • R. Neu
  • O. Neubauer
  • U. Neuner
  • T. Ngo
  • D. Nicolai
  • S. K. Nielsen
  • H. Niemann
  • T. Nishizawa
  • R. Nocentini
  • C. Nuehrenberg
  • J. Nuehrenberg
  • S. Obermayer
  • G. Offermanns
  • K. Ogawa
  • J. Oelmanns
  • J. Ongena
  • J. W. Oosterbeek
  • G. Orozco
  • M. Otte
  • L. Pacios Rodriguez
  • N. Panadero
  • N. Panadero Alvarez
  • D. Papenfuss
  • S. Paqay
  • E. Pasch
  • A. Pavone
  • E. Pawelec
  • T. S. Pedersen
  • G. Pelka
  • Valeria Perseo
  • B. Peterson
  • D. Pilopp
  • S. Pingel
  • F. Pisano
  • B. Plaum
  • G. Plunk
  • P. Poeloeskei
  • M. Porkolab
  • J. Proll
  • M-E Puiatti
  • A. Puig Sitjes
  • F. Purps
  • M. Rack
  • S. Recsei
  • A. Reiman
  • F. Reimold
  • D. Reiter
  • F. Remppel
  • S. Renard
  • R. Riedl
  • J. Riemann
  • K. Risse
  • A Rohde
  • H. Roehlinger
  • M. Rome
  • D. Rondeshagen
  • P. Rong
  • B. Roth
  • L. Rudischhauser
  • K. Rummel
  • T. Rummel
  • A. Runov
  • N. Rust
  • L. Ryc
  • S. Ryosuke
  • R. Sakamoto
  • M. Salewski
  • A. Samartsev
  • E. Sanchez
  • F. Sano
  • S. Satake
  • J. Schacht
  • G. Satheeswaran
  • F. Schauer
  • T. Scherer
  • J. Schilling
  • A. Schlaich
  • G. Schlisio
  • F. Schluck
  • K-H Schlueter
  • J. Schmitt
  • H. Schmitz
  • O. Schmitz
  • S. Schmuck
  • M. Schneider
  • W. Schneider
  • P. Scholz
  • R. Schrittwieser
  • M. Schroeder
  • T. Schroeder
  • R. Schroeder
  • H. Schumacher
  • B. Schweer
  • E. Scott
  • S. Sereda
  • B. Shanahan
  • M. Sibilia
  • P. Sinha
  • C. Slaby
  • M. Sleczka
  • H. Smith
  • W. Spiess
  • D. A. Spong
  • A. Spring
  • R. Stadler
  • M. Stejner
  • L. Stephey
  • U. Stridde
  • C. Suzuki
  • J. Svensson
  • Susanne J. Szabo
  • T. Szabolics
  • T. Szepesi
  • Z. Szokefalvi-Nagy
  • A. Tancetti
  • J. Terry
  • J. Thomas
  • M. Thumm
  • J. M. Travere
  • P. Traverso
  • J. Tretter
  • H. Trimino Mora
  • H. Tsuchiya
  • T. Tsujimura
  • S. Tulipan
  • B. Unterberg
  • I. Vakulchyk
  • S. Valet
  • L. Vano
  • B. van Milligen
  • A. J. van Vuuren
  • L. Vela
  • J-L Velasco
  • M. Vergote
  • M. Vervier
  • N. Vianello
  • H. Viebke
  • R. Vilbrandt
  • A. Vorkoeper
  • S. Wadle
  • F. Wagner
  • E. Wang
  • N. Wang
  • Z. Wang
  • F. Warmer
  • T. Wauters
  • L. Wegener
  • J. Weggen
  • Y. Wei
  • G. Weir
  • J. Wendorf
  • U. Wenzel
  • A. Werner
  • A. White
  • B. Wiegel
  • F. Wilde
  • T. Windisch
  • M. Winkler
  • A. Winter
  • Victoria Winters
  • S. Wolf
  • R. C. Wolf
  • A. Wright
  • G. Wurden
  • P. Xanthopoulos
  • H. Yamada
  • M Yamada
  • R. Yasuhara
  • M. Yokoyama
  • M. Zanini
  • M. Zarnstorff
  • A. Zeitler
  • D. Zhang
  • H. Zhang
  • J. Zhu
  • M. Zilker
  • A. Zocco
  • S. Zoletnik
  • M. Zuin

Organisaatiot

  • University of Greifswald
  • Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, Max Planck Society
  • Tech Univ Denmark, Technical University of Denmark, Dept Phys, Assoc EURATOM DTU
  • Princeton Plasma Phys Lab, Princeton Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, United States Department of Energy (DOE)
  • Natl Inst Fus Sci, National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) - Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS) - Japan
  • CIEMAT
  • Assoc EURATOM HAS, Euratom, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Wigner Res Ctr Phys
  • MIT, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Ctr Space Res
  • University of Wisconsin-Madison
  • Res Ctr Julich GmbH, Research Center Julich, Helmholtz Association, Inst Energy & Climate Res Plasma Phys
  • Australian National University
  • Eindhoven University of Technology
  • University of Cagliari
  • Consorzio RFX
  • Univ Lisbon, Universidade de Lisboa, Inst Super Tecn, Inst Plasmas & Fusao Nucl
  • CEA Cadarache
  • Russian Acad Sci, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Phys Tech Inst
  • Oak Ridge Natl Lab, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, United States Department of Energy (DOE)
  • University of Salerno
  • ENEA Ctr Ric Frascati, Italian National Agency New Technical Energy & Sustainable Economics Development
  • Inst Plasma Phys & Laser Microfus, Institute of Plasma Physics & Laser Microfusion (IFPiLM)
  • University of Szczecin
  • Univ Milano Bicoccae, Euratom, University of Milano-Bicocca, EURATOM ENEA CNR Assoc Fus
  • Royal Mil Acad
  • Auburn University
  • Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
  • Univ Carlos III Madrid, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Dept Fis
  • Univ Stuttgart, University of Stuttgart, Inst Surface Proc Engn & Plasma Technol
  • Austrian Acad Sci, Austrian Academy of Sciences
  • Inst Nucl Res, National Academy of Sciences Ukraine, Institute for Nuclear Research of NASU, V. M. Glushkov Institute of Cybernetics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
  • Technical University of Berlin
  • Opole Univ Technol, Opole University of Technology
  • Univ Maryland, University System of Maryland, University of Maryland College Park, Dept Phys
  • CNR, Istituto Fisica del Plasma "Piero Caldirola" (IFP-CNR), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Ist Fis Plasma
  • Kyoto Univ, Kyoto University, Grad Sch Informat, Dept Appl Math & Phys, Sakyo Ku
  • Culham Ctr Fus Energy
  • Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)
  • Los Alamos Natl Lab, Los Alamos National Laboratory, United States Department of Energy (DOE)
  • Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics

Kuvaus

The optimized superconducting stellarator device Wendelstein 7-X (with major radius R = 5.5 m, minor radius a = 0.5 m, and 30 m(3) plasma volume) restarted operation after the assembly of a graphite heat shield and 10 inertially cooled island divertor modules. This paper reports on the results from the first high-performance plasma operation. Glow discharge conditioning and ECRH conditioning discharges in helium turned out to be important for density and edge radiation control. Plasma densities of 1-4.5 x 10(19) m(-3) with central electron temperatures 5-10 keV were routinely achieved with hydrogen gas fueling, frequently terminated by a radiative collapse. In a first stage, plasma densities up to 1.4 x 10(20) m(-3) were reached with hydrogen pellet injection and helium gas fueling. Here, the ions are indirectly heated, and at a central density of 8 . 10(19 )m(-3) a temperature of 3.4 keV with T-e/T-i = 1 was transiently accomplished, which corresponds to nT(i)(0)tau(E) = 6.4 x 10(19) keV s m(-3) with a peak diamagnetic energy of 1.1 MJ and volume-averaged normalized plasma pressure = 1.2%. The routine access to high plasma densities was opened with boronization of the first wall. After boronization, the oxygen impurity content was reduced by a factor of 10, the carbon impurity content by a factor of 5. The reduced (edge) plasma radiation level gives routinely access to higher densities without radiation collapse, e.g. well above 1 x 10(20) m(-2) line integrated density and T-e = T-i = 2 keV central temperatures at moderate ECRH power. Both X2 and O2 mode ECRH schemes were successfully applied. Core turbulence was measured with a phase contrast imaging diagnostic and suppression of turbulence during pellet injection was observed.

Yksityiskohdat

AlkuperäiskieliEnglanti
Artikkeli112004
Sivut1-11
Sivumäärä11
JulkaisuNuclear Fusion
Vuosikerta59
Numero11
TilaJulkaistu - marraskuuta 2019
OKM-julkaisutyyppiA1 Julkaistu artikkeli, soviteltu

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