On the super adiabatic flame temperature (SAFT) of toluene primary reference fuels

Giang Bui, Atmadeep Bhattacharya*, Ossi Kaario, Ville Vuorinen, Rupali Tripathi, Teemu Sarjovaara

*Tämän työn vastaava kirjoittaja

Tutkimustuotos: LehtiartikkeliArticleScientificvertaisarvioitu

1 Sitaatiot (Scopus)
25 Lataukset (Pure)


Toluene primary reference fuel (TPRF) mixtures containing iso-octane (i-C8H18), n-heptane (n-C7H16), and toluene (C6H5CH3) are commonly used as gasoline surrogates. We report the occurrence of super adiabatic flame temperature (SAFT) during the premixed combustion of TPRF mixtures in air. Both 1-D premixed flame and 0-D (well-stirred) reactor configurations have been considered for chemical kinetic analysis with Cantera version 2.5.1. A recently developed detailed gasoline surrogate mechanism (C3MechV3.3) has been used for the 0-D reactor analysis. On the other hand, the flame structures have been simulated with a skeletal mechanism. To ensure accurate analysis, the mechanisms used in this work have been validated at SAFT relevant conditions against experimental data from literature. For the first time in literature, post-flame heat release and brute force reaction sensitivity analysis have been performed to identify important reactions contributing towards SAFT in TPRF surrogates. The degree of superadiabaticity for 1-D and 0-D cases have been expressed with non-dimensional parameters ξ1D and ξ0D respectively. The results show that ξ1D and ξ0D increase with the increase in iso-octane content in TPRF compositions, while n-heptane and toluene have minor influence on SAFT. Key chemical observations to the SAFT mechanism in gasoline surrogate mixtures include: 1) The competition between the exothermic reaction zone and the endothermic post-flame region causes SAFT. 2) Both 1-D flame and 0-D reactor analysis show that the reactions involving H, OH, and C3 species have major influence on SAFT. 3) Iso-octane augments SAFT as its β-scission product iso-butene (i-C4H8) influences the post-flame endothermicity and C3 species formation.
DOI - pysyväislinkit
TilaJulkaistu - 1 maalisk. 2023
OKM-julkaisutyyppiA1 Julkaistu artikkeli, soviteltu


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