We report an indium phosphide nanowire (NW)-induced cavity in a silicon planar photonic crystal (PPC) waveguide to improve the light–NW coupling. The integration of NW shifts the transmission band of the PPC waveguide into the mode gap of the bare waveguide, which gives rise to a microcavity located on the NW section. Resonant modes with 푄 factors exceeding 103 are obtained. Leveraging on the high density of the electric field in the microcavity, the light–NW interaction is enhanced strongly for efficient nonlinear frequency conversion. Second-harmonic generation and sum-frequency generation in the NW are realized with a continuous-wave pump laser in a power level of tens of microwatts, showing a cavity-enhancement factor of 112. The hybrid integration structure of NW-PPC waveguide and the self-formed microcavity not only opens a simple strategy to effectively enhance light–NW interactions, but also provides a compact platform to construct NW-based on-chip active devices.