The goal of this paper is to examine existing methods to study the “Human Brain Connectome” with a specific focus on the neurophysiological ones. In recent years, a new approach has been developed to evaluate the anatomical and functional organization of the human brain: the aim of this promising multimodality effort is to identify and classify neuronal networks with a number of neurobiologically meaningful and easily computable measures to create its connectome. By defining anatomical and functional connections of brain regions on the same map through an integrated approach, comprising both modern neurophysiological and neuroimaging (i.e. flow/metabolic) brain-mapping techniques, network analysis becomes a powerful tool for exploring structural–functional connectivity mechanisms and for revealing etiological relationships that link connectivity abnormalities to neuropsychiatric disorders. Following a recent IFCN-endorsed meeting, a panel of international experts was selected to produce this current state-of-art document, which covers the available knowledge on anatomical and functional connectivity, including the most commonly used structural and functional MRI, EEG, MEG and non-invasive brain stimulation techniques and measures of local and global brain connectivity.