Major results from the first plasma campaign of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator

Tutkimustuotos: Lehtiartikkeli

Tutkijat

  • R.C. Wolf
  • Anwaar Ali
  • A. Alonso
  • Jürgen Baldzuhn
  • Craig Beidler
  • M. Beurskens
  • C. Biedermann
  • H. S. Bosch
  • S. Bozhenkov
  • Rudolf Brakel
  • Andreas Dinklage
  • Yue Feng
  • G Fuchert
  • J. Geiger
  • Olaf Grulke
  • P. Helander
  • M. Hirsch
  • Udo Höfel
  • M. Jakubowski
  • Jens Knauer
  • G Kocsis
  • R. König
  • Petra Kornejew
  • A. Kràmer-Flecken
  • M. Krychowiak
  • Matt Landreman
  • Andreas Langenberg
  • H.P. Laqua
  • S. Lazerson
  • H. Maaßberg
  • S. Marsen
  • M. Marushchenko
  • D Moseev
  • Holger Niemann
  • Novimir Pablant
  • Ekkehard Pasch
  • Kian Rahbarnia
  • G. Schlisio
  • Torsten Stange
  • T. Sunn Pedersen
  • J. Svensson
  • T Szepesi
  • H. Trimino Mora
  • Yuriy Turkin
  • T Wauters
  • Gavin Weir
  • U. Wenzel
  • Thomas Windisch
  • G. Wurden
  • D. Zhang
  • Ivana Abramovic
  • P. Aleynikov
  • Ksenia Aleynikova
  • R. Alzbutas
  • G. Anda
  • T. Andreeva
  • Enrique Ascasibar
  • J. Assmann
  • S. G. Baek
  • Martin Banduch
  • Tullio Barbui
  • M. Barlak
  • Kristin Baumann
  • W. Behr
  • Andree Benndorf
  • O. Bertuch
  • Wolfgang Biel
  • Dietrich Birus
  • Boyd Blackwell
  • E. Blanco
  • Marko Blatzheim
  • Torsten Bluhm
  • Daniel Böckenhoff
  • Peter Bolgert
  • Matthias Borchardt
  • V. Borsuk
  • J. Boscary
  • Lukas Georg Böttger
  • H van den Brand
  • Ch Brandt
  • T. Bràuer
  • H. Braune
  • S Brezinsek
  • K. J. Brunner
  • B. Brünner
  • R. Burhenn
  • Birger Buttenschön
  • Victor Bykov
  • Ivan Calvo
  • B. Cannas
  • Alvaro Cappa
  • Andre Carls
  • L. Carraro
  • B. B. Carvalho
  • Francisco Castejon
  • A. Charl
  • F. Chernyshev
  • Mark Cianciosa
  • R. Citarella
  • Ciupiński
  • G. Claps
  • Elizabeth M. Cole
  • M. J. Cole
  • F. Cordella
  • G Cseh
  • A Czarnecka
  • A. Czermak
  • K. Czerski
  • M. Czerwinski
  • G. Czymek
  • A. Da Molin
  • A. Da Silva
  • G. Dammertz
  • J. Danielson
  • Angel De La Pena
  • Sven Degenkolbe
  • P Denner
  • D. P. Dhard
  • Marion Dostal
  • Michael Drevlak
  • P. Drewelow
  • Ph Drews
  • Andrzej Dudek
  • G. Dundulis
  • F. Durodie
  • Paul Von Eeten
  • Florian Effenberg
  • G. Ehrke
  • M Endler
  • D. Ennis
  • E. Erckmann
  • H. Esteban
  • T. Estrada
  • Nils Fahrenkamp
  • J. H. Feist
  • Joris Fellinger
  • H. Fernandes
  • W. H. Fietz
  • Waldemar Figacz
  • J. Fontdecaba
  • O Ford
  • Tomasz Fornal
  • H. Frerichs
  • A. Freund
  • M. Führer
  • T. Funaba
  • A. Galkowski
  • G. Gantenbein
  • Y. Gao
  • J. García Regaña
  • M Garcia-Munoz
  • D. Gates
  • G. Gawlik
  • B. Geiger
  • V. Giannella
  • N. Gierse
  • Alena Gogoleva
  • Bruno Reinaldo Goncalves
  • A. Goriaev
  • Dorothea Gradic
  • Michael Grahl
  • J. Green
  • A. Grosman
  • Heinz Grote
  • M. Gruca
  • Carlos Guerard
  • L. Haiduk
  • X. Han
  • F. Harberts
  • J. H. Harris
  • H.-J. Hartfuß
  • D. Hartmann
  • Dag Hathiramani
  • Bernd Hein
  • B Heinemann
  • P. Heitzenroeder
  • Sophia Henneberg
  • C. Hennig
  • J. Hernandez Sanchez
  • C. Hidalgo
  • Hauke Hölbe
  • K. P. Hollfeld
  • Alf Hölting
  • D. Höschen
  • Michael Houry
  • J. Howard
  • X. Huang
  • M. Huber
  • Valentina Huber
  • H. Hunger
  • K. Ida
  • T Ilkei
  • S. Illy
  • Ben Israeli
  • A. Ivanov
  • Slowomir Jablonski
  • J. Jagielski
  • J. Jelonnek
  • Hartmut Jenzsch
  • P. Junghans
  • J. Kacmarczyk
  • T. Kaliatka
  • Johann Peter Kallmeyer
  • Ute Kamionka
  • R. Karalevicius
  • Hiroshi Kasahara
  • W. Kasparek
  • Naoki Kenmochi
  • M. Keunecke
  • A. Khilchenko
  • D. J. Kinna
  • Ralf Kleiber
  • T. Klinger
  • M. Knaup
  • Th Kobarg
  • F. Köchl
  • Yaroslav Kolesnichenko
  • Axel Könies
  • M. Köppen
  • J. Koshurinov
  • R Koslowski
  • Friedemann Köster
  • R. Koziol
  • M. Kràmer
  • Rüdiger Krampitz
  • P. Kraszewsk
  • N. Krawczyk
  • Thierry Kremeyer
  • Th Krings
  • JG Krom
  • G. Krzesinski
  • I. Ksiazek
  • M. Kubkowska
  • Georg Kühner
  • Sehyun Kwak
  • Karl R. Lang
  • S. Langish
  • H. Laqua
  • Ralph Laube
  • C. Lechte
  • M. Lennartz
  • W. Leonhardt
  • L. Lewerentz
  • Y. Liang
  • Ch. Linsmeier
  • S. Liu
  • Jim Felix Lobsien
  • D. Loesser
  • J. Loizu Cisquella
  • J. D. Lore
  • A. Lorenz
  • M. Losert
  • L. Lubyako
  • A. Lücke
  • A. Lumsdaine
  • VN Lutsenko
  • J. Majano-Brown
  • O. Marchuk
  • M. Mardenfeld
  • P. Marek
  • S. Massidda
  • S. Masuzaki
  • D. Maurer
  • Kieran McCarthy
  • Paul McNeely
  • A. Meier
  • D. Mellein
  • B. Mendelevitch
  • Ph. Mertens
  • DR Mikkelsen
  • O. Mishchenko
  • Bernd Missal
  • Joseph Mittelstaedt
  • T. Mizuuchi
  • Albert Mollen
  • Victor Moncada
  • Thomas Mönnich
  • T. Morizaki
  • R. Munk
  • S. Murakami
  • F. Musielok
  • G. Náfrádi
  • Mathias Nagel
  • Dirk Naujoks
  • G. Hutch Neilson
  • O. Neubauer
  • U. Neuner
  • Tran Tranh Ngo
  • R. Nocentini
  • Carolin Nührenberg
  • Jürgen Nührenberg
  • S. Obermayer
  • G. Offermanns
  • K. Ogawa
  • J. Ongena
  • J. W. Oosterbeek
  • G. Orozco
  • M. Otte
  • L. Pacios Rodriguez
  • Wei Pan
  • Nerea Panadero
  • N. Panadero Alvarez
  • A. Panin
  • D. Papenfuß
  • S. Paqay
  • Andrea Pavone
  • Ewa Pawelec
  • G. Pelka
  • Xiaoniu Peng
  • Valeria Perseo
  • Ben Peterson
  • A. Pieper
  • Dirk Pilopp
  • S. Pingel
  • F. Pisano
  • B Plaum
  • Gabriel Plunk
  • M. Povilaitis
  • J. Preinhaelter
  • Josefine Proll
  • M.E. Puiatti
  • A. Puig Sitjes
  • Frank Purps
  • M. Rack
  • S. Récsei
  • A. Reiman
  • D. Reiter
  • F. Remppel
  • S. Renard
  • R Riedl
  • Jörg Riemann
  • S. Rimkevicius
  • K. Riße
  • A. Rodatos
  • H. Röhlinger
  • M. Romé
  • Peter Rong
  • H. J. Roscher
  • B. Roth
  • Lukas Rudischhauser
  • Kerstin Rummel
  • Thomas Rummel
  • A. Runov
  • Norbert Rust
  • L. Ryc
  • S. Ryosuke
  • R. Sakamoto
  • A. Samartsev
  • M. Sanchez
  • F. Sano
  • Shinsuke Satake
  • G. Satheeswaran
  • Jörg Schacht
  • F. Schauer
  • T. Scherer
  • A. Schlaich
  • K. H. Schlüter
  • J. Schmitt
  • Hans Christian Schmitz
  • O Schmitz
  • S. Schmuck
  • M Schneider
  • W Schneider
  • M. Scholz
  • P. Scholz
  • R Schrittwieser
  • M. Schröder
  • Timo Schröder
  • R. Schroeder
  • Hans Werner Schumacher
  • B. Schweer
  • B. Shanahan
  • I. V. Shikhovtsev
  • M. Sibilia
  • Priyanjana Sinha
  • J. Skodzik
  • Christoph Slaby
  • Håkan Smith
  • W. Spiess
  • D. A. Spong
  • Anett Spring
  • Rolf Stadler
  • Brian Standley
  • Laurie Stephey
  • Matthew Stoneking
  • Uwe Stridde
  • Z. Sulek
  • C. Surko
  • Y. Suzuki
  • V. Szabó
  • T. Szabolics
  • Z. Szökefalvi-Nagy
  • Naoyuki Tamura
  • A. Terra
  • J.L. Terry
  • J. D. Thomas
  • H. Thomsen
  • M. Thumm
  • C.P Thun
  • D. Timmermann
  • P. Titus
  • K. Toi
  • J. M. Travere
  • Paolo Traverso
  • J. Tretter
  • Hayato Tsuchiya
  • T. Tsujimura
  • S. Tulipán
  • M. Turnyanskiy
  • B. Unterberg
  • Maximilian J. Urban
  • E. Urbonavicius
  • I. Vakulchyk
  • Swetlana Valet
  • B. Van Millingen
  • Luis Vela
  • Jose Luis Velasco
  • Maarten Vergote
  • M. Vervier
  • N Vianello
  • Holger Viebke
  • Reinhard Vilbrandt
  • A. Vorkörper
  • S. Wadle
  • Friedrich Wagner
  • Erhui Wang
  • Nan Wang
  • Felix Warmer
  • Lutz Wegener
  • J. Weggen
  • Y. Wei
  • Jörg Wendorf
  • Andreas Werner
  • Burkhard Wiegel
  • Fabian Wilde
  • E. Winkler
  • Victoria Winters
  • N. S. Wolf
  • J. Wolowski
  • A. von Wright
  • Pavlos Xanthopoulos
  • Hirofumi Yamada
  • Ichihiro Yamada
  • Ryo Yasuhara
  • Masayuki Yokoyama
  • J. Zajac
  • MC Zarnstorff
  • J. Axel Zeitler
  • H. Zhang
  • Jun Zhu
  • Manfred Zilker
  • Andreas Zimbal
  • Alessandro Zocco
  • S. Zoletnik
  • M. Zuin

Organisaatiot

  • Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics
  • CIEMAT
  • Wigner Research Centre for Physics
  • Jülich Research Centre
  • University of Maryland, College Park
  • Princeton University
  • Royal Military Academy
  • Los Alamos National Laboratory
  • Lithuanian Energy Institute
  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • University of Wisconsin-Madison
  • Narodowe Centrum Badań Jadrowych
  • Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
  • Australian National University
  • Eindhoven University of Technology
  • University of Cagliari
  • CNR
  • Instituto Superior Tecnico Lisboa
  • RAS - Ioffe Physico Technical Institute
  • Oak Ridge National Laboratory
  • University of Salerno
  • Warsaw University of Technology
  • Agenzia nazionale per le nuove tecnologie, l'energia e lo sviluppo economico sostenibile
  • Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies
  • The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences
  • University of Szczecin
  • University of Milan - Bicocca
  • University of California at San Diego
  • Auburn University
  • Brandenburg University of Technology
  • National Institutes of Natural Sciences - National Institute for Fusion Science
  • Universidad Carlos III de Madrid
  • CEA
  • Culham Centre for Fusion Energy
  • RAS - Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics
  • University of Stuttgart
  • Fraunhofer Institute for Surface Engineering and Thin Films
  • Austrian Academy of Sciences
  • NASU - Institute of Nuclear Research
  • RAS - Institute of Applied Physics
  • Technical University of Berlin
  • University of Opole
  • Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt
  • Kyoto University
  • CAS - Institute of Plasma Physics
  • Czech Academy of Sciences
  • Istituto di Fisica Del Plasma Piero Caldirola
  • Fraunhofer Institute for Machine Tools and Forming Technology
  • University of Rostock
  • Lawrence University, Appleton

Kuvaus

After completing the main construction phase of Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) and successfully commissioning the device, first plasma operation started at the end of 2015. Integral commissioning of plasma start-up and operation using electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and an extensive set of plasma diagnostics have been completed, allowing initial physics studies during the first operational campaign. Both in helium and hydrogen, plasma breakdown was easily achieved. Gaining experience with plasma vessel conditioning, discharge lengths could be extended gradually. Eventually, discharges lasted up to 6 s, reaching an injected energy of 4 MJ, which is twice the limit originally agreed for the limiter configuration employed during the first operational campaign. At power levels of 4 MW central electron densities reached 3 1019 m-3, central electron temperatures reached values of 7 keV and ion temperatures reached just above 2 keV. Important physics studies during this first operational phase include a first assessment of power balance and energy confinement, ECRH power deposition experiments, 2nd harmonic O-mode ECRH using multi-pass absorption, and current drive experiments using electron cyclotron current drive. As in many plasma discharges the electron temperature exceeds the ion temperature significantly, these plasmas are governed by core electron root confinement showing a strong positive electric field in the plasma centre.

Yksityiskohdat

AlkuperäiskieliEnglanti
Artikkeli102020
Sivut1-13
Sivumäärä13
JulkaisuNuclear Fusion
Vuosikerta57
Numero10
TilaJulkaistu - 27 heinäkuuta 2017
OKM-julkaisutyyppiA1 Julkaistu artikkeli, soviteltu

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