Magnetoencephalography source estimation: Transforming the sensor-level signals to estimates of brain activity

Tutkimustuotos: Artikkeli kirjassa/konferenssijulkaisussaChapterScientificvertaisarvioitu

Abstrakti

This chapter describes the source estimation approaches to magnetoencephalography (MEG) analysis. Both MEG and electroencephalography (EEG) are measures of ongoing neuronal activity, and are ultimately generated by the same sources: postsynaptic currents in groups of neurons which have a geometrical arrangement favoring currents with a uniform direction across nearby neurons. From the outset, the overarching theme of MEG analysis methods has been the desire to transform the signals measured by the MEG sensors outside the head into estimates of source activity. This problem is challenging because of the ill-posed nature of the electromagnetic inverse problem. However, thanks to being able to capitalize on appropriate physiological and anatomical constraints, several reliable and widely used source estimation methods have emerged. The chapter then identifies the forward modeling approaches needed to relate the signals in the source and sensor spaces, and characterizes two popular approaches to source estimation: the parametric dipole model and distributed source estimates. Until 50 years ago, electroencephalography (EEG) was the only noninvasive technique capable of directly measuring neuronal activity with a millisecond time resolution. However, with the birth of magnetoencephalography (MEG), functional brain activity can now be resolved with this time resolution at a new level of spatial detail. The use of MEG in practical studies began with the first real-time measurements in the beginning of 1970s. During the following decade, multichannel MEG systems were developed in parallel with both investigations of normal brain activity and clinical studies, especially in epileptic patients. The first whole-head MEG system with more than 100 channels was introduced in 1992. Up to now, such instruments have been delivered to researchers and clinicians worldwide. The overarching theme of MEG analysis methods has been from the outset the desire to transform the signals measured by the MEG sensors outside the head into estimates of source activity. This problem is challenging because of the ill-posed nature of the electromagnetic inverse problem. However, thanks to being able to capitalize on appropriate physiological and anatomical constraints, several reliable and widely used source estimation methods have emerged. This chapter starts by describing the overall characteristics of MEG, followed a general description of the source estimation problem. The chapter then discusses the forward modeling approaches needed to relate the signals in the source and sensor spaces, and finally characterizes two popular approaches to source estimation: the parametric dipole model and distributed source estimates.
AlkuperäiskieliEnglanti
OtsikkoFifty Years of Magnetoencephalography: Beginnings, Technical Advances, and Applications
ToimittajatAndrew Papanicolaou, Timothy Roberts, James Wheless
KustantajaOxford University Press
ISBN (painettu)9780190935689
DOI - pysyväislinkit
TilaJulkaistu - 2020
OKM-julkaisutyyppiA3 Kirjan osa tai toinen tutkimuskirja

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