The ongoing rapid increase in the integration of variable and uncertain renewable energy sources calls for enhancing the ways of providing flexibility to power grids. To this end, we propose an optimal approach for utilizing electric vehicle parking lots to provide flexibility at the distribution level. Accordingly, we present a day-ahead scheduling model for distribution system operators, where they can offer discounts on the network tariff to electric vehicle parking lot operators. This way, they will be encouraged to exploit the potential flexibility of electric vehicle batteries to assist in alleviating the steep ramps of system net-load. To determine the optimal discounts, the distribution system operator minimizes the network operating costs considering the network operational constraints, while the electric vehicle parking lot operators try to maximize their profits. Due to the contradictory objectives and decision hierarchy, the problem is an instance of Stackelberg games and can be formulated as a bi-level program, which is linearized and converted to a single-level mixed-integer linear program using strong-duality theorem and Karush–Kuhn–Tucker conditions. To validate the proposed model, comprehensive simulation studies are performed on a test distribution network. The simulation results show that implementing the model can reduce the peak-off-peak difference and peak-to-average ratio of the network net-load by up to 15% and 24%, respectively.
|Julkaisu||International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems|
|Varhainen verkossa julkaisun päivämäärä||3 kesäk. 2022|
|DOI - pysyväislinkit|
|Tila||Sähköinen julkaisu (e-pub) ennen painettua julkistusta - 3 kesäk. 2022|
|OKM-julkaisutyyppi||A1 Julkaistu artikkeli, soviteltu|