Although lithium-metal anodes are being extensively examined in research projects aiming at pushing the energy density of lithium batteries to its limit, the knowledge about the mechanical properties of pure lithium is insufficient in two aspects. First, most of the available data focuses either on nano- and micro-scale single-crystalline lithium or on macro-scale bulk material. Second, those tests were commonly performed via uniaxial tests in which the stress states were simple or nanoindentation. This work aims at bridging these gaps by performing a systematic experimental program under various stress states on small-sized specimens and by developing a plasticity model that can capture the important characteristics. Based on these experimental and computational findings, the added value on the understanding of the deformation and failure mechanisms of lithium under various stress states and a first quantitative description on the plasticity anisotropy on lithium is provided. In order to manufacture the required complex-shaped specimens for the five different stress states (uniaxial tension, notched tension with two different radii, central hole tension, and simple shear), a method which allows safe laser cutting of thick lithium foil in argon atmosphere is developed. The tensile tests are conducted in pure argon as well as in air to quantify the effect of oxidation on the strength of lithium. By means of post-mortem microstructural examinations, two active slip systems and cross-slip are observed. Lithium fractures in a perfectly ductile manner when the specimen thickness is reduced to zero due to localized necking. Digital image correlation analysis shows that the lithium foil is highly anisotropic in the through-thickness direction although it is in-plane isotropic. By using a rate-dependent transverse isotropic model, a satisfactory prediction of the five experiments is provided.