Despite the rapid spread of Internet of Things (IoT) systems, the lack of interoperability between the systems significantly hinders their business and societal potential. Moreover, a major challenge for wider interoperability is that the IoT systems can be owned by multiple independent entities, whose collaboration will need to be organised to ensure their interoperability. One approach for achieving this is to establish federations supported by Distributed Ledger Technologies (DLTs), as this enables interoperability between entities and collaboration between business platforms, thereby overcoming many technical and administrative difficulties. DLTs can provide the required transparency and immutability for management of the federations, thus increasing trust and reducing the risk of misbehaviour that could destabilise the federation. This paper presents two system dynamics simulation models, which demonstrate that the success of a federation (with or without DLT support) is inversely related to the short-term selfishness of its members, and we then proceed to show that DLTs can improve the feedback received by the federation members on their actions by promoting a common consensus, which in turn can make the federation more resilient.
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