An innovative overlap joint concept was tested to evaluate the quality improvement of welds between aluminum alloy AA5754-H22 (2 mm) and steel DX54 (1.5 mm). The innovation is a wave-shaped interface produced on the steel being directly processed by the tip of the probe, generating localized heat, extensive chemically active surfaces, and additional mechanical interlocking. Welds with different parameters were evaluated by metallographic analysis and mechanical tests. The best set of parameters was then implemented in a conventional overlap joint, plus in two- and three-passes welding, with the innovative overlap joint concept, to evaluate the effect on microstructure and mechanical efficiency. With a single-pass weld, the new concept presented lower strength in tensile shear tests, but higher strength in peeling tests. The main mechanism governing this behavior was the reduction of effective thickness in the aluminum alloy sheet, due to the flow of steel into the aluminum alloy. The characterization and distribution of the intermetallic compounds were evaluated via SEM-EDX. The two-passes weld resulted in the best strength values in tensile shear tests, reaching about 50% of the ultimate tensile strength of the aluminum alloy base material.
Sorger, G., Wang, H., Vilaça, P., & Santos, T. G. (2017). FSW of Aluminium AA5754 to Steel DX54 with Innovative Overlap Joint. Welding in the World, 61(2), 257-268. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40194-016-0412-y