TY - JOUR

T1 - From gap-exponential time hypothesis to fixed parameter tractable inapproximability

T2 - Clique, dominating set, and more

AU - Chalermsook, Parinya

AU - Cygan, Marek

AU - Kortsarz, Guy

AU - Laekhanukit, Bundit

AU - Manurangsi, Pasin

AU - Nanongkai, Danupon

AU - Trevisan, Luca

PY - 2020

Y1 - 2020

N2 - We consider questions that arise from the intersection between the areas of polynomial-time approximation algorithms, subexponential-time algorithms, and fixed-parameter tractable (FPT) algorithms. The questions, which have been asked several times, are whether there is a nontrivial FPT-approximation algorithm for the Maximum Clique (Clique) and Minimum Dominating Set (DomSet) problems parameterized by the size of the optimal solution. In particular, letting OPT be the optimum and N be the size of the input, is there an algorithm that runs in t(OPT)poly(N) time and outputs a solution of size f(OPT) for any computable functions t and f that are independent of N (for Clique, we want f (OPT) = omega(1))? In this paper, we show that both Clique and DomSet admit no nontrivial FPT-approximation algorithm, i.e., there is no o(OPT)-FPT-approximation algorithm for Clique and no f (OPT)-FPT-approximation algorithm for DomSet for any function f. In fact, our results imply something even stronger: The best way to solve Clique and DomSet, even approximately, is to essentially enumerate all possibilities. Our results hold under the Gap Exponential Time Hypothesis [I. Dinur. ECCC, TR16-128, 2016; P. Manurangsi and P. Raghavendra, preprint, arXiv:1607.02986, 2016], which states that no 2(o(n))-time algorithm can distinguish between a satisfiable 3 SAT formula and one which is not even (1 - epsilon)-satisfiable for some constant epsilon > 0. Besides Clique and DomSet, we also rule out nontrivial FPT-approximation for the Maximum Biclique problem, the problem of finding maximum subgraphs with hereditary properties (e.g., Maximum Induced Planar Subgraph), and Maximum Induced Matching in bipartite graphs, and we rule out the k(o(1))-FPT-approximation algorithm for the Densest k-Subgraph problem.

AB - We consider questions that arise from the intersection between the areas of polynomial-time approximation algorithms, subexponential-time algorithms, and fixed-parameter tractable (FPT) algorithms. The questions, which have been asked several times, are whether there is a nontrivial FPT-approximation algorithm for the Maximum Clique (Clique) and Minimum Dominating Set (DomSet) problems parameterized by the size of the optimal solution. In particular, letting OPT be the optimum and N be the size of the input, is there an algorithm that runs in t(OPT)poly(N) time and outputs a solution of size f(OPT) for any computable functions t and f that are independent of N (for Clique, we want f (OPT) = omega(1))? In this paper, we show that both Clique and DomSet admit no nontrivial FPT-approximation algorithm, i.e., there is no o(OPT)-FPT-approximation algorithm for Clique and no f (OPT)-FPT-approximation algorithm for DomSet for any function f. In fact, our results imply something even stronger: The best way to solve Clique and DomSet, even approximately, is to essentially enumerate all possibilities. Our results hold under the Gap Exponential Time Hypothesis [I. Dinur. ECCC, TR16-128, 2016; P. Manurangsi and P. Raghavendra, preprint, arXiv:1607.02986, 2016], which states that no 2(o(n))-time algorithm can distinguish between a satisfiable 3 SAT formula and one which is not even (1 - epsilon)-satisfiable for some constant epsilon > 0. Besides Clique and DomSet, we also rule out nontrivial FPT-approximation for the Maximum Biclique problem, the problem of finding maximum subgraphs with hereditary properties (e.g., Maximum Induced Planar Subgraph), and Maximum Induced Matching in bipartite graphs, and we rule out the k(o(1))-FPT-approximation algorithm for the Densest k-Subgraph problem.

KW - hardness of approximation

KW - parameterized complexity

KW - subexponential-time algorithms

KW - fine-grained complexity

KW - clique

KW - dominating set

KW - DENSE K-SUBGRAPH

KW - LOWER BOUNDS

KW - COMPLEXITY

KW - HARDNESS

KW - INAPPROXIMABILITY

KW - APPROXIMATION

KW - PROOFS

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85091332800&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1137/18M1166869

DO - 10.1137/18M1166869

M3 - Article

VL - 49

SP - 772

EP - 810

JO - SIAM JOURNAL ON COMPUTING

JF - SIAM JOURNAL ON COMPUTING

SN - 0097-5397

IS - 4

ER -