An influential factor in enhancing the attendance services, mainly in commercial and emergency sectors, is the vehicular technology used to transport people, goods, or equipment. Although hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) represent a sustainable transport alternative, the existing technical limitations such as battery and fuel capacities, and autonomy, among others, highlight the provision of an efficient automation tool. The tool can serve to enhance the operational performance of the HEV by selecting the proper driving mode (on fuel or electricity), and the navigation strategies to the delivery and charging points in urban areas. This paper proposes a two-stage methodology that allows the HEVs operators to automate the operational performance of a heterogeneous HEV fleet on a city map. Each stage is handled by its corresponding optimization model. In the first stage, the total navigation time and the battery lifetime of the fleet during the operation are optimized. In this stage, constraints related to charge-sustaining/charge-depleting modes, state of charge (SoC) of the HEVs battery, and deliveries schedules are taken into account. To this end, operating strategies related to the performance of different types of existing HEV technologies are anonymously considered. In the second stage, the best operating strategy among all the operating strategies is selected while considering the capacity of HEVs to deliver a given quantity of goods. Moreover, uncertainties during the HEV navigation are simulated considering the change in traffic density of the urban roads as a function of the levels of service (LOS). Results show that the proposed methodology establishes an efficient operational scheme for a HEVs fleet, ensuring a significant reduction of energy usage as well as mitigating the CO2 emissions.
Cerna, F. V., Pourakbari Kasmaei, M., Lehtonen, M., & Contreras, J. (2019). Efficient Automation of an HEV Heterogeneous Fleet using a Two-Stage Methodology. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 68(10), 9494-9506. https://doi.org/10.1109/TVT.2019.2937452