Advancements in smartphone technology have resulted in the proliferation of Augmented Reality (AR) applications and games. Researchers have acknowledged the great potential of AR applications to enhance entertainment and improve learning experiences. In this study, we examined the potential effects of gamified AR in public places. We developed ARQuiz, an AR-based quiz game, for a public exhibition space and conducted a user study with respondents via survey (N = 176; 55.68% female, mean age 35.94 and SD = 11.89) and face-to-face interview (N = 28; 57.14% female, mean age 31.07 and SD = 7.42). We analyzed the relationship between perceived application usefulness, perceived application enjoyment, perceived exhibition enjoyment, and perceived quiz enjoyment. In addition, we examined perceived sociability before and after the quiz, quiz score, and user behavior in the exhibition space. The results indicate that visitors who enjoyed playing the ARQuiz game enjoyed the exhibition more, obtained better quiz results and felt more social after visiting the exhibition. Furthermore, the ARQuiz was regarded as a possible platform for improving visitors’ learning and overall experiences in public exhibitions. Although some players expressed concerns about the privacy and intrusiveness of AR, our results indicate that a well-designed AR game may boost the overall satisfaction of an exhibition visit and increase players’ sociability.