Direct observation of a dynamical glass transition in a nanomagnetic artificial Hopfield network

Michael Saccone*, Francesco Caravelli, Kevin Hofhuis, Sergii Parchenko, Yorick A. Birkhölzer, Scott Dhuey, Armin Kleibert, Sebastiaan van Dijken, Cristiano Nisoli, Alan Farhan

*Tämän työn vastaava kirjoittaja

Tutkimustuotos: LehtiartikkeliArticleScientificvertaisarvioitu

18 Sitaatiot (Scopus)


Spin glasses, generally defined as disordered systems with randomized competing interactions1,2, are a widely investigated complex system. Theoretical models describing spin glasses are broadly used in other complex systems, such as those describing brain function3,4, error-correcting codes5 or stock-market dynamics6. This wide interest in spin glasses provides strong motivation to generate an artificial spin glass within the framework of artificial spin ice systems7–9. Here we present the experimental realization of an artificial spin glass consisting of dipolar coupled single-domain Ising-type nanomagnets arranged onto an interaction network that replicates the aspects of a Hopfield neural network10. Using cryogenic X-ray photoemission electron microscopy (XPEEM), we performed temperature-dependent imaging of thermally driven moment fluctuations within these networks and observed characteristic features of a two-dimensional Ising spin glass. Specifically, the temperature dependence of the spin glass correlation function follows a power-law trend predicted from theoretical models on two-dimensional spin glasses11. Furthermore, we observe clear signatures of the hard-to-observe rugged spin glass free energy1 in the form of sub-aging, out-of-equilibrium autocorrelations12 and a transition from stable to unstable dynamics1,13.

JulkaisuNature Physics
Varhainen verkossa julkaisun päivämäärä17 maalisk. 2022
DOI - pysyväislinkit
TilaJulkaistu - toukok. 2022
OKM-julkaisutyyppiA1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä


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