Development and validation of energy demand uncertainty model for electric city buses
Tutkimustuotos: Lehtiartikkeli › › vertaisarvioitu
difficult to study since fast computing sufficiently accurate dynamic simulation models have been missing, properly quantified in terms of relevant inputs which contribute to energy demand. The objective is to develop and validate a novel electric city bus model for computing the energy demand, to study the nature and impact of various input factors. The developed equation-based model predicted real-world electric city bus energy consumption within 0.1% error. The most crucial unmeasurable input factors were the driven bus route, the number of stops, the elevation profile, the traffic level and the driving style. This understanding can be used to specify routes and stops for a given electric bus battery capacity. Worst-case scenarios are also necessary for electric bus sizing analysis. The best- and worst-case levels of the crucial factors were identified and with them synthetic best- and worst-case speed profiles were generated to demonstrate their effect to the energy demand. While the measured nominal consumption was 0.70 kWh/km, the
computed range of variation was between 0.19 kWh/km and 1.34 kWh/km. For design sizing purposes, an electric city bus can have a broad range of possible energy consumption rates due to
mission condition variations.
|Julkaisu||TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH PART D: TRANSPORT AND ENVIRONMENT|
|Tila||Julkaistu - 2 elokuuta 2018|
|OKM-julkaisutyyppi||A1 Julkaistu artikkeli, soviteltu|