In order to investigate collective effects of interactions between pedestrians and attractions, this study extends the social force model. Such interactions lead pedestrians to form stable clusters around attractions, or even to rush into attractions if the interaction becomes stronger. It is also found that for high pedestrian density and intermediate interaction strength, some pedestrians rush into attractions while others move to neighboring attractions. These collective patterns of pedestrian movements or phases and transitions between them are systematically presented in a phase diagram. The results suggest that safe and efficient use of pedestrian areas can be achieved by moderating the pedestrian density and the strength of attractive interaction, for example, in order to avoid situations involving extreme desire for limited resources.
- pedestrian dynamics; statistical physics; phase transition