Innovation in technology-enhanced learning (TEL) is a complex process that requires the active involvement of diverse actors. This paper elaborates on two design innovation approaches that call for the active involvement of stakeholders: co-creation and co-design. While co-creation and co-design are well aligned, they are rooted in different traditions. We argue that co-creation and co-design can contribute to TEL innovation, and we present a design research case based on a research and innovation project that uses co-creation and co-design to innovate in science learning outside the classroom. Based on a qualitative analysis of the project co-creation and co-design outputs, we elaborate on the key differences between co-creation and co-design and highlight the main implications these differences have for TEL innovation.