In this study, the interaction forces between different cellulosic nanomaterials and a protein domain belonging to cellulose binding modules family 1 (CBM1) were investigated at the molecular scale. Cellulose binding modules are protein domains found in carbohydrate active enzymes having an affinity toward cellulosic materials. Here, the binding force of a fusion protein containing a cellulose binding module (CBM1) produced recombinantly in E. coli was quantified on different cellulose nanocrystals immobilized on surfaces. Adhesion of the CBM on cellulose with different degrees of crystallinity as well as on chitin nanocrystals was examined. This study was carried out by single molecule force spectroscopy using an atomic force microscope, which enables the detection of binding force of individual molecules. The study contains a preliminary quantification of the interactions at the molecular level that sheds light on the development of new nanocellulose-based nanocomposites with improved strength and elasticity.