Autonomous driving requires 3D maps that provide accurate and up-to-date information about semantic landmarks. Since cameras present wider availability and lower cost compared with laser scanners, vision-based mapping solutions, especially the ones using crowdsourced visual data, have attracted much attention from academia and industry. However, previous works have mainly focused on creating 3D point clouds, leaving automatic change detection as open issue. We propose a pipeline for initiating and updating 3D maps with dashcam videos, with a focus on automatic change detection based on comparison of metadata (e.g., the types and locations of traffic signs). To improve the performance of metadata generation, which depends on the accuracy of 3D object detection and localization, we introduce a novel deep learning-based pixel-wise 3D localization algorithm. The algorithm, trained directly with SfM (Structure from Motion) point cloud data, accurately locates objects in 3D space by estimating not only depth from monocular images but also lateral and height distances. In addition, we also propose a point clustering and thresholding algorithm to improve the robustness of the system to errors. We have performed experiments with different types of cameras, lighting, and weather conditions. The changes were detected with an average accuracy above 90%. The errors in the campus area were mainly due to traffic signs seen from a far distance to the vehicle and intended for pedestrians and cyclists only. We also conducted cause analysis of the detection and localization errors to measure the impact from the performance of the background technology in use.
|Julkaisu||IEEE Internet of Things Journal|
|Varhainen verkossa julkaisun päivämäärä||22 helmik. 2023|
|DOI - pysyväislinkit|
|Tila||Julkaistu - 1 heinäk. 2023|
|OKM-julkaisutyyppi||A1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä|
SormenjälkiSukella tutkimusaiheisiin 'Automatic Map Update Using Dashcam Videos'. Ne muodostavat yhdessä ainutlaatuisen sormenjäljen.
- 2 Päättynyt
01/01/2019 → 31/12/2022
Projekti: Academy of Finland: Other research funding
01/11/2018 → 30/09/2022
Projekti: EU: Framework programmes funding