The purpose of this article is to detail and evaluate three alternative approaches to sound-field visualization, which all employ the use of spatially localized active-intensity (SLAI) vectors. These SLAI vectors are of particular interest, as they allow direction-of-arrival (DoA) estimates to be extracted in multiple spatially localized sectors, such that a sound source present in one sector has reduced influence on the DoA estimate made in another sector. These DoA estimates may be used to visualize the sound-field by either: (I) directly depicting the estimates as icons, with their relative size dictated by the corresponding energy of each sector; (II) generating traditional activity maps via histogram analysis of the DoA estimates; or (III) by using the DoA estimates to reassign energy and subsequently sharpen traditional beamformer-based activity maps. Since the SLAI-based DoA estimates are continuous, these approaches are inherently computationally efficient, as they forego the need for dense scanning grids to attain high-resolution imaging. Simulation results also show that these SLAI-based alternatives outperform traditional active-intensity and beamformer-based approaches, for the majority of cases.
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