Analyzing national and local pathways to carbon-neutrality from technology, emissions, and resilience perspectives—Case of Finland

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@article{deee292f44224ed9ab0dd8df0ce2cfaf,
title = "Analyzing national and local pathways to carbon-neutrality from technology, emissions, and resilience perspectives—Case of Finland",
abstract = "The Paris Climate Accord calls for urgent CO 2 reductions. Here we investigate low and zero carbon pathways based on clean electricity and sector coupling. Effects from different spatialities are considered through city and national cases (Helsinki and Finland). The methodology employs techno-economic energy system optimization, including resilience aspects. In the Finnish case, wind, nuclear, and biomass coupled to power-to-heat and other flexibility measures could provide a cost-effective carbon-neutral pathway (annual costs −18{\%}), but nuclear and wind are, to some extent, exclusionary. A (near) carbon-neutral energy system seems possible even without nuclear (−94{\%} CO 2 ). Zero-carbon energy production benefits from a stronger link to the broader electricity market albeit flexibility measures. On the city level, wind would not easily replace local combined heat and power (CHP), but may increase electricity export. In the Helsinki case, a business-as-usual approach could halve emissions and annual costs, while in a comprehensive zero-emission approach, the operating costs (OPEX) could decrease by 87{\%}. Generally, electrification of heat production could be effective to reduce CO 2 . Low or zero carbon solutions have a positive impact on resilience, but in the heating sector this is more problematic, e.g., power outage and adequacy of supply during peak demand will require more attention when planning future carbon-free energy systems.",
keywords = "Carbon neutrality, Energy system modelling, Photovoltaics, Renewable energy, Sector coupling, Urban energy, Wind power",
author = "Sannamari Pilpola and Vahid Arabzadeh and Jani Mikkola and Lund, {Peter D.}",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.3390/en12050949",
language = "English",
volume = "12",
journal = "Energies",
issn = "1996-1073",
publisher = "MDPI AG",
number = "5",

}

RIS - Lataa

TY - JOUR

T1 - Analyzing national and local pathways to carbon-neutrality from technology, emissions, and resilience perspectives—Case of Finland

AU - Pilpola, Sannamari

AU - Arabzadeh, Vahid

AU - Mikkola, Jani

AU - Lund, Peter D.

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - The Paris Climate Accord calls for urgent CO 2 reductions. Here we investigate low and zero carbon pathways based on clean electricity and sector coupling. Effects from different spatialities are considered through city and national cases (Helsinki and Finland). The methodology employs techno-economic energy system optimization, including resilience aspects. In the Finnish case, wind, nuclear, and biomass coupled to power-to-heat and other flexibility measures could provide a cost-effective carbon-neutral pathway (annual costs −18%), but nuclear and wind are, to some extent, exclusionary. A (near) carbon-neutral energy system seems possible even without nuclear (−94% CO 2 ). Zero-carbon energy production benefits from a stronger link to the broader electricity market albeit flexibility measures. On the city level, wind would not easily replace local combined heat and power (CHP), but may increase electricity export. In the Helsinki case, a business-as-usual approach could halve emissions and annual costs, while in a comprehensive zero-emission approach, the operating costs (OPEX) could decrease by 87%. Generally, electrification of heat production could be effective to reduce CO 2 . Low or zero carbon solutions have a positive impact on resilience, but in the heating sector this is more problematic, e.g., power outage and adequacy of supply during peak demand will require more attention when planning future carbon-free energy systems.

AB - The Paris Climate Accord calls for urgent CO 2 reductions. Here we investigate low and zero carbon pathways based on clean electricity and sector coupling. Effects from different spatialities are considered through city and national cases (Helsinki and Finland). The methodology employs techno-economic energy system optimization, including resilience aspects. In the Finnish case, wind, nuclear, and biomass coupled to power-to-heat and other flexibility measures could provide a cost-effective carbon-neutral pathway (annual costs −18%), but nuclear and wind are, to some extent, exclusionary. A (near) carbon-neutral energy system seems possible even without nuclear (−94% CO 2 ). Zero-carbon energy production benefits from a stronger link to the broader electricity market albeit flexibility measures. On the city level, wind would not easily replace local combined heat and power (CHP), but may increase electricity export. In the Helsinki case, a business-as-usual approach could halve emissions and annual costs, while in a comprehensive zero-emission approach, the operating costs (OPEX) could decrease by 87%. Generally, electrification of heat production could be effective to reduce CO 2 . Low or zero carbon solutions have a positive impact on resilience, but in the heating sector this is more problematic, e.g., power outage and adequacy of supply during peak demand will require more attention when planning future carbon-free energy systems.

KW - Carbon neutrality

KW - Energy system modelling

KW - Photovoltaics

KW - Renewable energy

KW - Sector coupling

KW - Urban energy

KW - Wind power

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85063065008&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3390/en12050949

DO - 10.3390/en12050949

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85063065008

VL - 12

JO - Energies

JF - Energies

SN - 1996-1073

IS - 5

M1 - 949

ER -

ID: 32888522