Growing population and climate change are increasing the challenges to the global water situation. Due to a continuous elevating level of pollution, there is the requirement of novel innovative water technologies to ensure the good supply of drinking water. This review is mainly focused on the recent advances in nanotechnology aspects for water and wastewater treatment that include nano-based materials such as nanosorbents, metal oxides of nanoscale materials, polymer-based nanosorbents, membranes of nanoscale materials (nanomembranes), carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). These nanomaterials are beneficial when the properties and specific characteristics of these materials are compared with conventional processes of the wastewater treatment. The aim and objective of this review are to provide an overview of different types of nanomaterials and their applicability in the removal of heavy metals and bacterial pathogens from wastewater during the treatment process.