This study is among the first attempts to empirically investigate the adoption of mobile government by rural populations in developing economies. Based on 409 validated questionnaires collected from families living in rural China, the study examines the interdependences among rural inhabitants' demographic attributes, their access to and perceptions of mobile government, and quantifies how their intention to use mobile government is influenced by technology attributes, social factors and trust beliefs. The results indicate that young males, who live far from a village center or market, and have some knowledge of recent government policies, tend to have a more positive perception of mobile government, and therefore become potential adopters of the service. Perceived ease of use, near-term usefulness, long-term usefulness, integrity, benevolence, image and social influence have significant and positive influences on the intention to use mobile government. Specifically, perceived ease of use, long-term usefulness and social influence have a direct influence on intention to use, while perceived near-term usefulness, integrity, benevolence and image have an indirect influence.