The world of stainless steel production was 52 Mt in 2019, and the annual amount of slags including electric furnace, AOD converter, ladle, and casting tundish, was estimated at 15-17 Mt. Nowadays, only a minor fraction of slags from stainless steel production is utilized and a major part goes to landfilling. These slags contain high-value elements (Cr, Ni, Mo, Ti, V...) as oxides or in metallic form, some of them being environmentally problematic if dumped. Thus, any approach toward circular economy solutions for stainless steel slags would have great economic and environmental impacts. This contribution examines the slags from different process stages, and the available and new potential means to increase internal recycling and to modify slags composition and structure by optimizing their properties for reclaiming in high-value applications. Eventual methods are, e.g., fast controlled cooling and modifying additives. Means to recover valuable metals are discussed as well as potential product applications to utilize various slags with different chemical, physical, and mechanical properties. By integrating the treatments and steering of slags' properties to the total process optimization system, the principles of circular economy could be achieved.
|Julkaisu||Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy|
|Varhainen verkossa julkaisun päivämäärä||28 kesäk. 2021|
|DOI - pysyväislinkit|
|Tila||Julkaistu - syysk. 2021|
|OKM-julkaisutyyppi||A2 Arvio tiedejulkaisuussa (artikkeli)|
|Tapahtuma||International Conference on Molten Slags, Fluxes and Salts - Virtual, Online, Etelä-Korea|
Kesto: 21 helmik. 2021 → 25 helmik. 2021