Carbon gel catalyst layers were used in dye solar cells. These layers were prepared on flexible plastic substrates at low temperatures (130 degrees C). The carbon gel, demonstrated excellent flexibility which is an important feature for roll-to-roll production and special applications of dye solar cells. The use of these low cost and highly flexible catalyst layers resulted in good photovoltaic performance; only 10% lower than dye solar cells with rigid glass-based counter electrodes prepared with thermal platinization at similar to 400 degrees C temperature. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.