Numerical and experimental body phantoms for simulating and measuring radiation patterns of a mobile phone at 28 GHz



The purpose of this dataset is to supplement the data presented in our journal publication " Empirical Evaluation of a 28 GHz Antenna Array on a 5G Mobile Phone Using a Body Phantom " (see

This dataset contains the 3-D surface meshes of the numerical human body model and of the human body styrofoam phantom used in the above publication. The numerical human body model in the file numerical_human_body_model.stp was initially exported from MakeHuman (, the actual body posture was then created with Blender 3D Creation Suite (, and this final body model was exported in .STP format. This .STP file was then imported into CST Studio Suite ( in order to simulate the 3-D realized-gain patterns of the mobile-phone antenna placed in the hand of the human body model. The dimensions of the in-house hexagonal human-body phantom used in the measurements is provided in the file styrofoam_structure_ hexagonal_body_phantom.stp, which describes the Styrofoam support structure of the hexagonal human body phantom without the skin material layer that is to be added for measurements. The material properties of the numerical human body model used in the simulations as well as of the skin material used in the measurements are described in detail in the above publication. Also, the design of the dual-polarized mobile-phone antenna-array with eight vertical feed ports and eight horizontal feed ports is described in detail within the above publication (see Fig. 4 - 6) and is not part of this dataset.

This dataset also contains the 3-D polarimetric, directional, complex-valued (real, imaginary) realized-gain patterns simulated and measured in free space, as well as simulated with a numerical human model and measured with the body phantom, all at 28 GHz. The simulated patterns are given in 1-degree resolution in both phi and theta angles. Whereas measured patterns with the body phantom are given in 1-degree resolution in theta angle and 10-degree resolution in phi angle. The patterns are separately given for each of the sixteen antenna ports, where eight are vertically polarized ("Vpol") and eight are horizontal polarized ("Hpol"). Port order and types are described in detail within the above publication. The 2-D pattern cuts presented in the above publication (in Fig. 8) are subsets of the 3-D patterns in this dataset. The de-embedding of the feed lines and connector losses, which is explained in the paper, was not applied for these (measured) datasets.

For convenience the 80 ASCII realized-gain patterns files are divided into five separate subsets (.zip files) which are:

- Measurement_freeSpace
- Measurement-1_phantom
- Measurement-2_phantom
- Simulated_freeSpace
- Simulated_numericalHuman

The format of the 16 ASCII files per .zip file {e.g. Measurement_freeSpace_port1_Vpol.txt } is a follows:
1st column: Theta angle in degrees
2nd column: Phi angle in degrees
3rd column: real part of Gain, theta component, in dBi
4th column: imaginary part of Gain, theta component, in dBi
5th column: real part of Gain, phi component, in dBi
6th column: imaginary part of Gain, phi component, in dBi
In each file name, the first word defines whether the data is from simulation or measurement (there were two measurements done with the phantom, hence measurement_#1 and #2), the second tells whether the data is obtained in free space or with a user (options: freeSpace, numericalHuman and phantom), the third word defines the port number (port1 through port8) and the last one the polarization of that port (either Vpol or Hpol).

The spherical coordinate system is used in accordance to the IEEE-standard spherical coordinate system. The underlying Cartesian coordinate system is shown in the two attached preview (PNG) image files for both human body models, where the z-axis (theta=0 degrees) points to the direction of the head of the human, the x-axis (phi=0 degrees) towards the left-hand side of the human, and the y-axis (phi=90 degrees) towards the back of the human.

Koska saatavilla2021

Dataset Licences

  • CC-BY-4.0

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