XRD and ToF-SIMS study of intermetallic void formation in Cu-Sn micro-connects

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XRD and ToF-SIMS study of intermetallic void formation in Cu-Sn micro-connects. / Ross, G.; Vuorinen, V.; Krause, M.; Reissaus, S.; Petzold, M.; Paulasto-Kröckel, M.

In: Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 76-77, 2017, p. 390-394.

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@article{fa29055eb7584fbc9d6ec355cb61b1ce,
title = "XRD and ToF-SIMS study of intermetallic void formation in Cu-Sn micro-connects",
abstract = "An identified reliability challenge of significant importance to Cu-Sn bonding for 3D integration is Cu-Sn intermetallic void formation. Voids, often referred to as Kirkendall voids, form within the inter-diffusional zone between Cu and Sn, more specifically within the intermetallic compound Cu3Sn. The root-cause(s) of void formation is not well understood, therefore this study is designed to understand under what conditions voids form. The two main hypotheses for the root-causes of void formation are (i) the imbalance of diffusion rates between Cu and Sn during the formation of Cu-Sn intermetallic compounds and the resulting residual stresses and (ii) the co-deposition of impurities during Cu electroplating to void formation. Therefore, an ex- and in-situ x-ray diffraction (XRD) study is used to probe the material state as a function of thermal annealing, and a time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) study is used to detect impurities co-deposited during Cu electroplating and to understand the effects of thermal annealing on the impurities' kinetic behaviour.",
keywords = "3D integration, Intermetallic voids, Kirkendall voids, Reliability, Time-of-flight mass spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction",
author = "G. Ross and V. Vuorinen and M. Krause and S. Reissaus and M. Petzold and M. Paulasto-Kr{\"o}ckel",
year = "2017",
doi = "10.1016/j.microrel.2017.07.044",
language = "English",
volume = "76-77",
pages = "390--394",
journal = "Microelectronics Reliability",
issn = "0026-2714",

}

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TY - JOUR

T1 - XRD and ToF-SIMS study of intermetallic void formation in Cu-Sn micro-connects

AU - Ross, G.

AU - Vuorinen, V.

AU - Krause, M.

AU - Reissaus, S.

AU - Petzold, M.

AU - Paulasto-Kröckel, M.

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - An identified reliability challenge of significant importance to Cu-Sn bonding for 3D integration is Cu-Sn intermetallic void formation. Voids, often referred to as Kirkendall voids, form within the inter-diffusional zone between Cu and Sn, more specifically within the intermetallic compound Cu3Sn. The root-cause(s) of void formation is not well understood, therefore this study is designed to understand under what conditions voids form. The two main hypotheses for the root-causes of void formation are (i) the imbalance of diffusion rates between Cu and Sn during the formation of Cu-Sn intermetallic compounds and the resulting residual stresses and (ii) the co-deposition of impurities during Cu electroplating to void formation. Therefore, an ex- and in-situ x-ray diffraction (XRD) study is used to probe the material state as a function of thermal annealing, and a time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) study is used to detect impurities co-deposited during Cu electroplating and to understand the effects of thermal annealing on the impurities' kinetic behaviour.

AB - An identified reliability challenge of significant importance to Cu-Sn bonding for 3D integration is Cu-Sn intermetallic void formation. Voids, often referred to as Kirkendall voids, form within the inter-diffusional zone between Cu and Sn, more specifically within the intermetallic compound Cu3Sn. The root-cause(s) of void formation is not well understood, therefore this study is designed to understand under what conditions voids form. The two main hypotheses for the root-causes of void formation are (i) the imbalance of diffusion rates between Cu and Sn during the formation of Cu-Sn intermetallic compounds and the resulting residual stresses and (ii) the co-deposition of impurities during Cu electroplating to void formation. Therefore, an ex- and in-situ x-ray diffraction (XRD) study is used to probe the material state as a function of thermal annealing, and a time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) study is used to detect impurities co-deposited during Cu electroplating and to understand the effects of thermal annealing on the impurities' kinetic behaviour.

KW - 3D integration

KW - Intermetallic voids

KW - Kirkendall voids

KW - Reliability

KW - Time-of-flight mass spectroscopy

KW - X-ray diffraction

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85024490153&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.microrel.2017.07.044

DO - 10.1016/j.microrel.2017.07.044

M3 - Article

VL - 76-77

SP - 390

EP - 394

JO - Microelectronics Reliability

JF - Microelectronics Reliability

SN - 0026-2714

ER -

ID: 14527389