X-ray transparent proton-exchange membrane fuel cell design for in situ wide and small angle scattering tomography

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


  • I. Martens
  • Antonis Vamvakeros
  • Raphael Chattot
  • Maria V. Blanco
  • M. Rasola
  • J. Pusa
  • Simon D.M. Jacques
  • Dan Bizzotto
  • David P. Wilkinson
  • Bastian Ruffmann
  • Stefan Heidemann
  • V. Honkimäki
  • J. Drnec

Research units

  • ESRF-The European Synchrotron
  • University of British Columbia
  • Finden Ltd.
  • University College London
  • CNRS/IN2P3
  • University of Helsinki
  • balticFuelCells GmbH


We have constructed a 5 cm2 proton exchange membrane hydrogen fuel cell optimized for transparency of high energy X-rays. This cell allows for in situ elastic scattering measurements (WAXS, SAXS) during electrochemical operation with minimal trade-offs in cell performance vs benchtop designs, and is capable of reaching automotive current densities. A key feature is that the beam enters the cell at grazing incidence to the electrodes, massively increasing the effective pathlength and therefore the signal-to-background ratio. The 360 transparency in the plane of the sample permits imaging coupled with advanced techniques, such as X-ray diffraction computed tomography.


Original languageEnglish
Article number226906
Pages (from-to)1-8
JournalJournal of Power Sources
Publication statusPublished - 15 Oct 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Research areas

  • PEMFC, Tomography, X-ray scattering, XRD-CT

ID: 36028106