Wood compression in four-dimensional in situ tomography

Tero Mäkinen*, Alisa Halonen, Juha Koivisto, Mikko J. Alava

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
68 Downloads (Pure)


Wood deformation, in particular when subject to compression, exhibits scale-free avalanche-like behavior as well as structure-dependent localization of deformation. We have taken three-dimensional (3D) x-ray tomographs during compression with constant stress rate loading. Using digital volume correlation, we obtain the local total strain during the experiment and compare it to the global strain and acoustic emission. The wood cells collapse layer by layer throughout the sample starting from the softest parts, i.e., the spring wood. As the damage progresses, more and more of the softwood layers throughout the sample collapse, which indicates damage spreading instead of localization. In 3D, one can see a fat-tailed local strain rate distribution, indicating that inside the softwood layers, the damage occurs in localized spots. The observed log-normal strain distribution is in agreement with this view of the development of independent local collapses or irreversible deformation events. A key feature in the mechanical behavior of wood is then in the complex interaction of localized deformation between or among the annual rings.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberL070601
Pages (from-to)1-6
Number of pages6
JournalPhysical Review Materials
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 21 Jul 2022
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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