Where Have Shared E-Scooters Taken Us So Far? A Review of Mobility Patterns, Usage Frequency, and Personas

Samira Dibaj*, Aryan Hosseinzadeh, Miloš Mladenović, Robert Kluger

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview Articlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)
335 Downloads (Pure)


The emergence of micromobility services in the form of dockless shared e-scooters has resulted in a wide range of behavioral changes in urban environments. In order to effectively steer these changes towards sustainability targets, the characteristics of e-scooter trips and users’ behaviors should be understood further. However, there is a lack of systematic literature reviews in this domain. To address this gap, we provide a two-fold systematic literature review. The first aspect focuses on the categorization of temporal and spatial patterns of shared e-scooter usage. The second aspect focuses on a deeper understanding of e-scooter users’ behaviors, utilizing the principles of persona design. The analysis of temporal patterns highlights the commonality of midday, evening, and weekend peak usage across cities, while spatial patterns suggest e-scooters are used for traveling to recreational and educational land use, as well as city center areas. The synthesis of findings on users’ behaviors has resulted in six categories, with four user types based on usage frequency (one time, casual, power, and non-adopters), and two motivation-based personas (users who are not satisfied with current mobility options and users who have had positive travel experience from e-scooter usage). The overall findings provide important lessons for evaluating this emerging mobility service, which should be considered for steering its development in public-private stakeholder networks.
Original languageEnglish
Article number11792
Number of pages27
Issue number21
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2021
MoE publication typeA2 Review article, Literature review, Systematic review


  • electric scooter
  • rental e-scooter
  • micromobility
  • micro personal mobility vehicles
  • spatial analysis
  • temporal analysis
  • travel behavior
  • mobility patterns
  • personal
  • shared mobility


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