What sustained multi-disciplinary research can achieve: The space weather modeling framework

Tamas I. Gombosi, Yuxi Chen, Alex Glocer, Zhenguang Huang, Xianzhe Jia, Michael W. Liemohn, Ward B. Manchester, Tuija Pulkkinen, Nishtha Sachdeva, Qusai Al Shidi, Igor V. Sokolov, Judit Szente, Valeriy Tenishev, Gabor Toth, Bart Van Der Holst, Daniel T. Welling, Lulu Zhao, Shasha Zou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)
137 Downloads (Pure)


Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD)-based global space weather models have mostly been developed and maintained at academic institutions. While the "free spirit"approach of academia enables the rapid emergence and testing of new ideas and methods, the lack of long-Term stability and support makes this arrangement very challenging. This paper describes a successful example of a university-based group, the Center of Space Environment Modeling (CSEM) at the University of Michigan, that developed and maintained the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) and its core element, the BATS-R-US extended MHD code. It took a quarter of a century to develop this capability and reach its present level of maturity that makes it suitable for research use by the space physics community through the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) as well as operational use by the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC).

Original languageEnglish
Article number42
Number of pages55
Publication statusPublished - 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • MHD
  • Scientific computing
  • Solar flares and CMEs
  • Space plasma physics
  • Space weather


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