What is cosmetic surgery?

Asko Salmi, Esa Saarinen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Esthetic or cosmetic surgery is a sector of plastic surgery designed to improve a person’s external appearance by surgical
means. Esthetic surgery aims to increase mental and social well-being through surgical measures on the body. Typically,
surgery attempts to correct some visible physical feature. The starting point is the need experienced by the patient, often
without an actual medical indication. Esthetic surgery can have positive effects, for instance relating to anxiety, social
phobias, depression, quality of life, mental and physical health, self-efficacy and self-esteem. Prejudices and fears make it
difficult for patients to seek treatment. Approximately 8.5 million esthetic operations are performed annually in the world,
and the sector is growing. As attitudes change, esthetic surgery can be predicted to become commonplace in the future.
Translated title of the contributionWhat is cosmetic surgery?
Original languageFinnish
Pages (from-to)2137-2144
JournalDuodecim: Lääketieteellinen aikakauskirja
Issue number22
Publication statusPublished - 2017
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


Dive into the research topics of 'What is cosmetic surgery?'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this