The concept and policies of circular economy as well as the sustainability
of metals increase challenges to the fundamental knowledge of trace ele-
ments in various metal making environments. New processing approaches
are needed to increase the resource efficiencies of the smelting and refining
technologies, and their maximal utilization needs basic data about the phase
equilibria and other thermodynamic properties, which then can be used
in process design, optimization of plants and various artificial intelligence
tools. We have measured selected phase equilibria relevant to industrial
WEEE smelting as well as the distribution equilibria for a wide range of rare
elements present in typical copper scrap smelting and refining conditions.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)56
Number of pages60
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2017
MoE publication typeD1 Article in a trade journal


  • circular economy
  • sustainability
  • black copper
  • smelting


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