Wastewater Treatment and Reuse: a Review of its Applications and Health Implications

Kavindra Kumar Kesari*, Ramendra Soni, Qazi Mohammad Sajid Jamal, Pooja Tripathi, Jonathan A. Lal, Niraj Kumar Jha, Mohammed Haris Siddiqui, Pradeep Kumar, Vijay Tripathi, Janne Ruokolainen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview Articlepeer-review

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Water scarcity is one of the major problems in the world and millions of people have no access to freshwater. Untreated wastewater is widely used for agriculture in many countries. This is one of the world-leading serious environmental and public health concerns. Instead of using untreated wastewater, treated wastewater has been found more applicable and ecofriendly option. Moreover, environmental toxicity due to solid waste exposures is also one of the leading health concerns. Therefore, intending to combat the problems associated with the use of untreated wastewater, we propose in this review a multidisciplinary approach to handle wastewater as a potential resource for use in agriculture. We propose a model showing the efficient methods for wastewater treatment and the utilization of solid wastes in fertilizers. The study also points out the associated health concern for farmers, who are working in wastewater-irrigated fields along with the harmful effects of untreated wastewater. The consumption of crop irrigated by wastewater has leading health implications also discussed in this review paper. This review further reveals that our current understanding of the wastewater treatment and use in agriculture with addressing advancements in treatment methods has great future possibilities.

Original languageEnglish
Article number208
JournalWater, Air, and Soil Pollution
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2021
MoE publication typeA2 Review article in a scientific journal


  • Bio-computation
  • Biomass
  • Diseases
  • Environmental pollution
  • Human health
  • Sustainable agriculture
  • Wastewater


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