WALLDYN simulations of global impurity migration in JET and extrapolations to ITER

K. Schmid*, K. Krieger, S. W. Lisgo, G. Meisl, S. Brezinsek, Mitul Abhangi, P. Abreu, M. Aftanas, M. Afzal, K. M. Aggarwal, L. Aho-Mantila, E. Ahonen, M. Aints, M. Airila, R. Albanese, D. Alegre, O. Asunta, C. S. Chang, S. Collins, J. ErikssonL. G. Eriksson, J. Evans, X. Gao, M. Groth, A. Hakola, A. R. Horton, M. Hughes, J. Karhunen, T. Koskela, T. Kurki-Suonio, S. Lee, G. Liu, Y. Liu, J. M. Lopez, J. M. Lopez, T. Makkonen, D. L. Martin, J. Miettunen, S. Moradi, D. Moulton, S. Ranjan, A. Salmi, M. I. K. Santala, C. Silva, A. Sinha, P. Siren, T. J. Smith, Y. Sun, P. Thomas, L. Yao, JET Contributors

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


The migration of first wall material due to erosion, plasma transport and re-deposition is one of the key challenges in current and future fusion devices. To predict erosion/re-deposition patterns and to understand the underlying principal processes, the global simulation code WallDYN was developed. It couples the evolution of the first wall surface composition to plasma impurity transport. To benchmark the WallDYN model, it was applied to the JET ITER-like wall experiment (JET-ILW), which mimics the ITER first wall material configuration and is thus an ideal environment to validate the predictive significance of WallDYN calculations for ITER application. The WallDYN calculations show good agreement with the Be deposition patterns determined from JET-ILWpost-campaign wall tile analysis. The WallDYN results on W erosion and deposition also qualitatively match the post mortem patterns but quantitatively fall short by a factor of 20 which can be consolidated by including the influence of ELMs on the W erosion source. Applying the same model and process physics as for the JET calculations, the impurity migration and resulting fuel species co-deposition in ITER for different wall configurations and background plasmas were calculated. The simulations show that C containing wall configurations lead to unacceptable T retention whereas for the current ITER material choice (Be wall and W divertor) co-deposition will not limit the ITER operation. However the erosion of W by self-sputtering even without the contribution of ELMs could hamper ITER operation under certain plasma scenarios.

Original languageEnglish
Article number053015
Number of pages6
JournalNuclear Fusion
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2015
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • erosion
  • deposition
  • edge modelling


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