Wafer Level Solid Liquid Interdiffusion Bonding: Formation and Evolution of Microstructures

V. Vuorinen*, H. Dong, G. Ross, J. Hotchkiss, J. Kaaos, M. Paulasto-Kröckel

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
84 Downloads (Pure)


Wafer-level solid liquid interdiffusion (SLID) bonding, also known as transient liquid-phase bonding, is becoming an increasingly attractive method for industrial usage since it can provide simultaneous formation of electrical interconnections and hermetic encapsulation for microelectromechanical systems. Additionally, SLID is utilized in die-attach bonding for electronic power components. In order to ensure the functionality and reliability of the devices, a fundamental understanding of the formation and evolution of interconnection microstructures, as well as global and local stresses, is of utmost importance. In this work a low-temperature Cu-In-Sn based SLID bonding process is presented. It was discovered that by introducing In to the traditional Cu-Sn metallurgy as an additional alloying element, it is possible to significantly decrease the bonding temperature. Decreasing the bonding temperature results in lower CTE induced global residual stresses. However, there are still several open issues to be studied regarding the effects of dissolved In on the physical properties of the Cu-Sn intermetallics. Additionally, partially metastable microstructures were observed in bonded samples that did not significantly evolve during thermal annealing. This indicates the Cu-In-Sn SLID bond microstructure is extremely stable.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)818-824
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Electronic Materials
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Cu-In-Sn system
  • Low-temperature SLID bonding
  • reliability
  • TLP bonding


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