Vapor-Assisted Ex-Situ Doping of Carbon Nanotube toward Efficient and Stable Perovskite Solar Cells

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Research units

  • University of California at Los Angeles
  • University of Tokyo
  • Canatu Ltd.
  • National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology


Single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has been considered as a promising material for a top electrode of perovskite solar cells owing to its hydrophobic nature, earth-abundance, and mechanical robustness. However, its poor conductivity, a shallow work function, and nonreflective nature have limited further enhancement in power conversion efficiency (PCE) of top CNT electrode-based perovskite solar cells. Here, we introduced a simple and scalable method to address these issues by utilizing an ex-situ vapor-assisted doping method. Trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TFMS) vapor doping of the free-standing CNT sheet enabled tuning of conductivity and work function of the CNT electrode without damaging underneath layers. The sheet resistance of the CNT sheet was decreased by 21.3% with an increase in work function from 4.75 to 4.96 eV upon doping of TFMS. In addition, recently developed 2D perovskite-protected Cs-containing formamidium lead iodide (FACsPbI3) technology was employed to maximize the absorption. Because of the lowered resistance, better energy alignment, and improved absorption, the CNT electrode-based PSCs produced a PCE of 17.6% with a JSC of 24.21 mA/cm2, VOC of 1.005 V, and FF of 0.72. Furthermore, the resulting TFMS-doped CNT-PSCs demonstrated higher thermal and operational stability than bare CNT and metal electrode-based devices.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2223-2230
JournalNano Letters
Issue number4
Early online date1 Jan 2018
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2018
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Research areas

  • carbon nanotube, doping, electrode, Perovskite, stability

ID: 30565821