Vapor as a carrier of toxicity in a health troubled building

Johanna Salo, Aino Andersson, Raimo Mikkola, Laszlo Kredics, Martti Viljanen, Mirja Salkinoja-Salonen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Penicillium expansum was identified as a major contaminant in indoor air, settled dust and materials of several buildings connected to indoor air related health complaints. This fungus emitted large quantities of exudates when cultivated on laboratory media. The exudates proved toxic towards four different mammalian test cells up to 10000 fold dilution. Toxins identified by LC-MS/MS were communesins and chaetoglobosin. Air dispersal of the toxic exudates was investigated with an experimental set-up where natural convection was generated by temperature gradient. It was found that the exudate with the contained toxins became airborne transported from the warmer surface to the colder surface. The results thus demonstrate transportation of microbially produced toxic substances across the air space. The role of liquid emissions from indoor molds represents a novel mechanism for human exposure in mold contaminated buildings. In this paper we report that vapor condensed from the indoor air of building affected with molds Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus calidoustus and Penicillium expansum contained substances that were acutely toxic when exposed to mammalian cells in vitro. The results encourage further study of condensed indoor water vapor as a tool to assess the presence of airborne substances with possible adverse health effects.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHealthy Buildings Europe HB2015
PublisherInternational Society of Indoor Air Quality and Climate
Number of pages8
ISBN (Print)978-0-9846855-4-7
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2015
MoE publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication
EventHealthy Buildings Europe - Eindhoven, Netherlands
Duration: 18 May 201520 May 2015

Publication series

ISSN (Print)0788-8147


ConferenceHealthy Buildings Europe
Abbreviated titleHB
Internet address


Dive into the research topics of 'Vapor as a carrier of toxicity in a health troubled building'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this