Validation of SOLPS-ITER simulations with kinetic, fluid, and hybrid neutral models for JET-ILW low-confinement mode plasmas

N. Horsten*, M. Groth, W. Dekeyser, W. Van Uytven, S. Aleiferis, S. Carli, J. Karhunen, K. D. Lawson, B. Lomanowski, A. G. Meigs, S. Menmuir, A. Shaw, V. Solokha, B. Thomas, JET Contributors

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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For JET L-mode plasmas in low-recycling conditions (electron temperature at the outer strike point, Te,ot≳30eV), SOLPS-ITER simulations agree within the error bars for the experimental profiles at the low-field side (LFS) divertor target. The peak Balmer-α (Dα) emission in the LFS divertor agrees within the error bars of the KS3 filterscope diagnostic, but is approximately 30% lower than the peak value of the KT1 spectrometer. Simulations have been performed with fluid, kinetic, and hybrid models for the neutrals. The large fluid-kinetic discrepancies of more than a factor 2 are successfully corrected by using a hybrid fluid-kinetic approach, for which kinetic atoms are transferred to the fluid population when the local Knudsen number of the atom becomes smaller than a user-defined transition Knudsen number Knt. The hybrid-kinetic discrepancies are limited to a few % for Knt≤100. When increasing the upstream density to high-recycling conditions, at the onset of detachment (Te,ot≈5eV), the simulations predict more than a factor 2 lower peak ion saturation current to the LFS divertor than the experiments. Also the Dα emission is underpredicted with approximately a factor 2. For these high-recycling conditions, the fluid-kinetic discrepancies are limited to maximum 50%, which are again corrected by using the hybrid approach.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101247
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
JournalNuclear Materials and Energy
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2022
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Code validation
  • JET
  • Neutral models
  • Plasma edge modeling


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