Validating Geoid Models with Marine GNSS Measurements, Sea Surface Models, and Additional Gravity Observations in the Gulf of Finland

Timo Saari*, Mirjam Bilker-Koivula, Hannu Koivula, Maaria Nordman, Pasi Häkli, Sonja Lahtinen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Abstract

Traditionally, geoid models have been validated using GNSS-levelling benchmarks on land only. As such benchmarks cannot be established offshore, marine areas of geoid models must be evaluated in a different way. In this research, we present a marine GNSS/gravity campaign where existing geoid models were validated at sea areas by GNSS measurements in combination with sea surface models. Additionally, a new geoid model, calculated using the newly collected marine gravity data, was validated. The campaign was carried out with the marine geology research catamaran Geomari (operated by the Geological Survey of Finland), which sailed back and forth the eastern part of the Finnish territorial waters of the Gulf of Finland during the early summer of 2018. From the GNSS and sea surface data we were able to obtain geoid heights at sea areas with an accuracy of a few centimetres. When the GNSS derived geoid heights are compared with geoid heights from the geoid models differences between the respective models are seen in the most eastern and southern parts of the campaign area. The new gravity data changed the geoid model heights by up to 15 cm in areas of sparse/non-existing gravity data.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)196-214
Number of pages19
JournalMARINE GEODESY
Volume44
Issue number3
Early online date11 Mar 2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Keywords

  • Dynamic topography
  • marine GNSS
  • marine gravity
  • quasi-geoid
  • tide gauge

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